Archive for October, 2011

Tapaus Wikileaks

October 6, 2011

Tapaus Wikileaks

- tapaus ja sen taustakertomukset

Kaksi “suurta kertomusta”: teknodeterminismi vastaan suurmiesteoria

Teknodeterminismi:

- i) teknologian kehitys on välttämätöntä
- ii) teknologisen kehityksen vaikutus yhteiskuntiin on välttämätönä
(vrt. G.H. von Wright: “Jos jokin teknologinen uutuus voidaan valmistaa, niin se valmistetaan.”. Tiede ja ihmisjärki, Otava, luku XII)

“Technology will make it increasingly difficult for the state to control the information its people receive. … The Goliath of totalitarianism will be brought down by the David of the microchip.”  — Ronald Reagan, 1989

“Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather. […] We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth.We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity.Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us. They are all based on matter, and there is no matter here.Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal, our governance will emerge . Our identities may be distributed across many of your jurisdictions. The only law that all our constituent cultures would generally recognize is the Golden Rule. We hope we will be able to build our particular solutions on that basis. But we cannot accept the solutions you are attempting to impose. — John Perry Barlow, 1996 https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html

Mutta: autoritaariset, informaation saatavuutta ja kulkua valvovat valtiot ovat (ainakin osittain) pystyneet vastaamaan haasteeseen:
Great firewall of china

-

Suurmiesteoria:

-

- hakkeritausta, tuomio 1994 tietomurroista, “Australia’s most famous ethical computer hacker.”

- erikoisala: salausalgoritmit, kryptaus

- Parent Inquiry Into Child Protection

-book: “Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier”

Mikä Wikileaks on?

- perustettu 2006
- nykyisin muutama kokopäiväinen työntekijä, satoja vapaaehtoisia tilanteen mukaan
- mallia open source/wikipedia-maailmasta
- ensin wiki-tyylinen saitti, jossa kuka tahansa voi editoida, taustoittaa ja kommentoida vuodettuja dokumentteja (tästä nimi, ei muuten liity wikipediaan tai -mediaan)
- sittemmin itse vuotojen julkaisija
- motto ja “virallinen” tavoite: “We open governments”
-> transparency
- klassinen demokratia-argumentti, sananvapaus ja valistuneet kansalaiset välttämättömiä demokratialle
- Assangen uusi käsiste: “scientific journalism”
– julkaistaan myös lähteet ja “data”, johon jutut perustuvat
- wikileaksin “salainen” tavoite
https://zunguzungu.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/julian-assange-and-the-computer-conspiracy-%E2%80%9Cto-destroy-this-invisible-government%E2%80%9D/
- obstructing communication, “conspiracy tax”
- conspiracy: “organization to mutual benefit of authoritarian elites, including government agencies and mass media”

Miten Wikileaks toimii?

- Wikileaksista erillinen “vuotaja” vuotaa dokumentin Wikileaksille, joka pyrkii varmistamaan dokumnetin aitouden, takaamaan lähteen nimettömyyden, ja sitten julkaisee (Wikileaks tai Assange ei siis itse hanki saati hakkaa dokumentteja)
- teknologia:
Tor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tor_%28anonymity_network%29
Freenet
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freenet
Pretty Good Privacy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pretty_Good_Privacy

Mitä Wikileaks on vuotanut?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_published_by_WikiLeaks
http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5ggpxibR0mh2R2vgOXoffZdzr3oVw?docId=24f4f03080a14793ab890fa87baa1f66

Mitä Assange sanoo?

http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html

Mitä sitten?

poliittisia seurauksia:

- Kenia, http://www.editorsweblog.org/newsrooms_and_journalism/2009/06/wikileaks_receives_amnesty_international.php

- Islanti, SVT WikiRebels, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRF3gYxz1XQ&feature=related, 1.50-8.00

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_Modern_Media_Initiative

Miten liittyy teknodeterminismiin, miten erotellaan eri tekijöiden vaikutus:

- “fax revolution”
– “Dismantling Utopia: How Information Ended the Soviet Union”
- “sms revolution
– “SMS Revolution – Revolution Through SMS in Philippines”, http://hubpages.com/hub/SMS-Revolution
- “twitter revolution
– “The Role of Digital Networked Technologies in the Ukrainian Orange Revolution”, http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/publications/2007/The_Role_of_Digital_Networked_Technologies_in_the_Ukranian_Orange_Revolution
- “Wikileaks revolution

“CyberWar”

- technical – financial – oraganisational – legal

- Visa, MasterCard, PayPal, ei välitetä rahoja WikiLeaksille
- Bank of America, PostFinance sulkee pankkitilit
- Amazon perui palvelintilan
- Apple perui Wikileaks App’in
- EveryDNS perui dns-palvelun
- Twitter subpoena
- syytetoimet Yhdysvalloissa WikiLeaksia vastaan (vakoilu, varastaminen, terrorismi?)
- Bradley Manning
- syytetoimet Ruotsissa Assangea vastaan (raiskaus)
- DOS-hyökkäykset Wikileaksin palvelimille
- (Anonymous) DOS-hyökkäykset Visaa, MasterCardia, Ruotsin syyttäjänvirastoa jne. vastaan
- WikiLeaksin oikeudenkäynti Visaa, MasterCardia vastaan

Forkkaus

- OpenLeaks
http://www.businessinsider.com/wikileaks-defector-explains-whats-wrong-with-wikileaks-and-why-hes-creating-a-new-site-called-openleaks-2011-1
- Syntymässä on myös spesialisti-leakseja, kuten GreenLeaks
http://greenleaks.com/

Ideologiset vaikutukset suhteessa informaatioyhteiskuntaan

- lisää avoimuutta vai lisää valvontaa? ja kenelle?
- tiukennettu turvallisuus – “conspiracy tax” toimii? http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40916433/ns/us_news-wikileaks_in_security/
- wikileaks sensuroitu
– yritykset, twitter?,  http://opennet.net/blog/2010/12/intermediary-censorship-wikileaks-on-rise
– Australia, 2009-2010
– Kiina, 2010-
– US Military, 2010- (http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/aug/6/pentagon-bars-staff-from-visiting-wikileaks-site/)
– US liittovaltion työntekijät, 2010- (http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/dec/03/wikileaks-cables-blocks-access-federal)
- Hyvä yhteenveto, Yochai Benkler, “A Free Irresponsible Press”  http://benkler.org/Benkler_Wikileaks_current.pdf
        The response to the Wikileaks embassy cable release in the U.S. was dramatic and sharp. The integrated, cross-system attack on Wikileaks, led by the U.S. government with support from other governments, private companies, and online vigilantes, provides an unusually crisp window into the multi-system structure of freedom and constraint in the networked environment, and helps us to better map the emerging networked fourth estate. Its failure provides us with insight into how freedom of action is preserved primarily by bobbing and weaving between systems to avoid the constraints of those subsystems under attack and harness the affordances of those that are out of reach of the attacker

Tiedonvälitys/journalismi

- Al Jazeera ilmeisesti aloitti jo (Al Jazeera Transparency Unit) ja New York Times harkitsee oman “wikileaksin” perustamista:
http://news.yahoo.com/s/yblog_thecutline/20110125/ts_yblog_thecutline/ny-times-considers-creating-an-ez-pass-lane-for-leakers
- Blogeja, jotka seuraavat koko ajan Wikileaks-tapahtumia:
-http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/blog/2011/jan/25/wikileaks-latest-developments
http://www.thenation.com/blog/157971/wikileaks-news-views-blog-monday-day-58

Muuta

- “Wikileaks ACTA cables confirm it was a screwjob for the global poor”

http://www.boingboing.net/2011/02/04/wikileaks-acta-cable.html

- Wikileaks and the free culture movement:
http://www.libertyandsolidarity.org/node/104
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